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near carrara, italy

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

to this:


statuario marble | master bathroom | miami, FL | interior design by sand studios

photo credits ken hayden and ken hayden via luxesource

during our recent vacation, we planned to visit the sites of some of the marble quarries in the apuan alps, near carrara, italy, on the way from the airport in florence to the beach in forte dei marmi.  but, rain was forecast for the next day.  so, we decided to spend the sunny day at the beach, instead.

we drove through the town of carrara to the roman bridge near miseglia the next afternoon, after it stopped raining.

don’t the marble quarries look interesting?

before we visited the fundació joan miró during our recent trip to barcelona, spain, i would have described joan miró (1893-1983) as a surrealist artist.  although he was influenced by and influenced fauvist, cubist, surrealist, abstract expressionist, and color field artists, his work really shouldn’t be attributed to one art movement.

‘i have no interest whatsoever in any school or any artist. 

i am only interested in the anonymous,

in the result of the unconscious effort of the masses.’

-joan miró (1893-1983)

instead, miró developed his own visual language.


joan miró (1893-1983) | morning star | from the constellation series | gouache, oil and pastel on paper | 1940

the 23 works from miró’s constellation series (1940-1941), which were exhibited in new york in 1945, influenced american post-war art

‘to me, conquering freedom means conquering simplicity. 

at the very limit,

then, one line, one color can make a painting.’

-joan miró (1893-1983)



joan miró (1893-1983) | painting on a white background for the cell of a recluse I, II, III | acrylic on canvas | 1968

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace





joan miró (1893-1983) | the hope of a condemned man I, II, III | acrylic on canvas | 1974

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace



joan miró (1893-1983) | rejected model for the mosaic of pla de l’os | ink, crayon, and etching on paper | 1976

joan miró (1893-1983) | mosaic of pla de l’os | la rambla | barcelona, spain | 1976

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

miró spoke not only of painting, but also of anti-painting, which challenged artistic concepts and conventions by deconstructing the process and the painting.

‘i want to assasinate painting.’

-joan miró (1927)



joan miró (1893-1983) | burnt canvas 5 | acrylic on canvas, later torn and burnt | 1973

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace


joan miró (1893-1983) | burnt canvas 5 and burnt canvas 4 | acrylic on canvas, later torn and burnt | 1973

joan miró:  the ladder of escape | tate modern museum | london, united kingdom | 14 april-11 septermber 2011

photo credit andrew dunkley/tate photography via the guardian



joan miró (1893-1983) | may | acrylic and oil on canvas | 1973

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace





joan miró (1893-1983) | fireworks I, II, III | acrylic on canvas | 1974

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

do you prefer miró’s work inspired by abstract expressionism?

or, miró’s work that inspired abstract expressionism?

my husband, bob, and i recently visited barcelona, spain.  a city synonymous with the modernisme architecture of antoni gaudí (1852-1926).

during the late 19th century, barcelona was the center of the modernisme art movement, which occurred simultaneously with the renaissance of catalonia.  during this period, catalonia, which succeeded to castilian spain in 1714, began the political process of re-establishing their national identity.  a process that still continues today.


festival (festa) | the national day of catalonia (la diada nacional catalunya) | barcelona, spain | 11 september 2016

photo credit financial times (ft)

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antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | torre bellesguard | 1900-1909

the colors of the red and yellow striped mosaics symbolize the catalonian flag.  the mosaics were painted grey during the franco regime (1939-1978).

photo credit lisa walsh | innerspace

modernisme is the catalonian equivalent of art nouveau, the transitional style that linked the 19th century classic revival styles to 20th century modernism.  the leading modernisme architects, including domenech i montaner (1850-1923), puig i cadalfach (1867-1956), and gaudí, used architecture, the decorative arts, and the applied arts to differentiate the city of barcelona from the rest of spain and the rest of the world.

like art nouveau architecture, modernisme architecture has a curvilinear structure.  with organic, plant, or animal forms.  plus, rich and colorful decoration.  sometimes, the structure, form, or decoration has a subliminal symbolic meaning.


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antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | roof top terrace | casa milà | also known as la pedrera (the quarry) | 1906-1912

for casa milà, gaudí designed a two-wing apartment building with an innovative figure eight shaped floor plan.  even though they share a common facade, each wing has a separate entrance and a separate courtyard that provides light and ventilation.  the stairwells, chimneys, and ventilation towers on the roof top terrace conceal the circulation and mechanical systems.  the building has been restored.  part of it is still used as an apartment building.  the other part is now used as a cultural activities center, exhibition space, and event venue.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

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antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | serpentine bench | park güell | 1900-1914

photo credit lisa walsh | innerspace

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antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | the column room (la sala hipòstila) | park güell | 1900-1914

did you notice that some of the 86 doric inspired columns aren’t perpendicular?

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace




antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | salamander fountain | park güell | 1900-1914

gaudí was commissioned to design park güell as a garden community of 60 homes.  but, only two of the homes were ever built.  so, the housing development was never completed.  work on the project stopped in 1914.  in 1922, the city of barcelona acquired the property, which opened as a public park in 1926.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace







antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | roof top terrace | palau güell | 1886-1890

palau güell was built to extend an adjacent family home.  the palace is noteworthy for the innovative use of materials, space, and light.  particularly, the three story parabolic dome that gaudí designed for the central hall.  the oculus and skylights that illuminate the dome are visible from the roof top terrace, which has 20 chimneys.  ownership of palau güell was transferred to the barcelona provincial council in 1945.  the building has been restored, but remains unaltered, and is now a museum.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

do the roof top terraces seem like the most distinguishing feature of gaudí’s modernisme buildings?  actually, some of the other reoccurring features may seem more surprising.  did you notice the salamander on one of the palau güell chimneys?  another one of the palau güell chimneys has a dragon weathervane.




antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | dragon weathervane | roof top terrace | palau güell | 1886-1890

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

and, the pavilions güell have a dragon gate.  the dragon gate is not only an allusion to ladon, the dragon with 100 heads that guarded the golden apples in the garden of the hesperides for the mythological greek goddess hera, but also to l’atlàntida, a catalan poem about the legend of hercules, written in 1877.





antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | dragon gate | pavilions güell | 1884-1887

the pavilions güell were originally the gatehouses to an estate.  presently, they are the headquarters of the gaudí chair of the school of architecture at the polytechnic university of catalonia.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace

since i have an asian art background, the dragon gate also seemed like an allusion to ancient china.  especially, since we saw a ming dynasty art exhibition at caixaforum during our visit to barcelona.


imperial yellow dragon brocade fabric | ming dynasty (1368-1644) | ming: the golden empire | caixaforum | barcelona, spain | 15 june-2 october 2016

photo credit lisa walsh | innerspace

you can see the dragon that gaudí incorporated into the architecture of torre bellesgard from the southwest corner of the roof top terrace.  the gables and the dormers are the dragon’s face.  the stone masonry, the scales.  the ridge of the roof, the back.  and, the tower, the tail.

the dragon is an allusion to saint george (sant jordi), the patron saint of catalonia.  according to the golden legend, saint george slew a dragon to free a princess.  the kingdom was so grateful, that the entire population converted to christianity.  saint george is most often depicted as slaying the dragon with a sword while riding a white horse.  so, the tower could also represent saint george’s sword.




antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | torre bellesguard | 1900-1909

gaudí designed the torre bellesgard, a private estate built on the ruins of a medieval castle, in a combination of the gothic revival and the modernisme styles.  the family that currently owns the estate acquired it in 1944.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace, lisa walsh | innerspace and trip advisor

casa batlló is also known locally as casa del drac (house of the dragon).  the roof top tower with the four-armed cross represents the hilt of saint george’s sword, which has been plunged into the back of the dragon.  the roof, with scales of ceramic tiles with a metallic glaze in graduated colors, represents the back.  below the roof, the 60 parabolic arches in the loft form the dragon’s ribs.  the eaves of the roof form the spine, which descends through the building as a spiral staircase.





antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | casa batlló | also known as casa del drac (house of the dragon) | 1905-1907

when gaudí renovated the exterior and the interior of casa batlló, which was originally a neoclassical style apartment building built in 1877, he created his most unique, most imaginative, most artistic design.  the building has been restored, and is now used as a cultural center and event venue.

photo credits lisa walsh | innerspace, (c) casa batlló, lisa walsh | innerspace and (c) casa batlló


casa batlló | before and after

photo credit casa batlló


travel tips:

seven gaudí buildings are now unesco world heritage sites.  so, they are crowded with tourists.  following the advice of friends and colleagues who have visited or lived in barcelona, we were able to minimize the amount of time that we spent standing in tourist queues by purchasing timed tickets in advance.  whenever available, we also purchased the ‘fast pass’ that allows you to bypass the queue.  we also planned our itinerary strategically, visiting many of the most popular sites along the modernism route (ruta del modernisme) early in the morning, before the tour groups arrived.

interesting modernisme architecture:

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | casa vicens | 1883-1888

casa vicens is gaudí’s first residential building, which was recently purchased by mora banc, and is currently undergoing restoration.  the estimated opening date is 2016.

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | pavilions güell | 1884-1887

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | palau güell | 1886-1890

josep puig i cadalfach (1867-1956) | casa amatller | 1898-1900

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | torre bellesguard | 1900-1909

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | park güell | 1900-1914

we thought that the installation of decorative materials from gaudí buildings in the garden of casa museu gaudí was the most interesting exhibit at the museum.  the museum is located in the show house, which is one of the two houses built in park güell.  gaudí lived in the show house from 1906-1925.  we thought that the museum was interesting, but not as interesting as the buildings that gaudí designed.

lluís domènech i montaner (1850-1923) | casa lleó i morera | 1902-1906

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | casa batlló | 1905-1907

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | casa milà (la pedrera) | 1906-1912

our suggestion would be to ride the lift to the roof top terrace.  and then, to walk down the stairs to the lobby.  our suggestion would also be to bypass the visit to the pedrera apartment, because the halls of the apartment are so crowded with tourists.

antoni gaudí (1852-1926) | sagrada familia | 1882-

gaudí designed and built the nativity facade and the crypt of the sagrada familia.  the architecture of the rest of the cathedral is an interpretation of gaudí’s design concept, based on surviving documents and models.  the sagrada familia is still under construction, with an estimated completion date of 2026.

a friend, who recently visited barcelona, suggested not purchasing the supplemental tickets to visit the sagrada familia towers.

a colleague from barcelona recommended watching sagrada: the mystery of creation, a video by stefan haupt.

is ‘white is the new black for luxury real estate’?  according an article in the 22 july 2016 wall street journal newspaper, it is.


listed for US$79.6 million

living room | penthouse 92 | 432 park avenue | new york, NY | design by deborah berke partners

photo credit the pinnacle list

but, ‘do white kitchens sell for less?’  according to a recent zillow digs survey about the impact of wall color on american home sales, white is not the most marketable color for any room.

instead of white, grey is supposedly the most marketable wall color for a living room.


living room | new york, NY | design by jennifer post

photo credit michael moran via AD

and purple, not white, is supposedly the most marketable wall color for a dining room.  purple?

color affects wellness, according to color psychologists.  they suggest using warm colors for social spaces like living rooms, dining rooms, or kitchens because warm colors stimulate conversation.  red stimulates appetite, which makes it a popular color choice for residential or restaurant dining rooms.


dining room | new york, NY | design by piet boon

photo credit françois halard via house & garden

yellow, not white, is supposedly the most marketable wall color for a kitchen.


kitchen | new york, NY | interior design by thomas juul-hansen

photo credit dorothy hong for the wall street journal

and, beige bathrooms supposedly sell best.

color psychologists suggest that both beige and white imply cleanliness and purity.  and, that cool hues of blue, green, or turquoise encourage rejuvenation and relaxation.  which, makes all of them suitable colors for a bathroom.


bathroom | new york, NY | design by ingrao inc.

photo credit nikolas koenig via AD

since cool colors like blue, green, or lavender have a calming effect, they are also ideal bedroom colors.

according to zillow digs, green is the best selling bedroom wall color.

LuxeSource Luxe Interiors + Design Magazine The Destination Where Design Connects

photo credit ken hayden via luxe

color also affects temperature perception, according to scientists.  studies show that people perceive the temperature of cool colored rooms as 6-10 degrees colder than the actual temperature.  and, the temperature of warm colored rooms as 6-10 degrees hotter than the actual temperature.  so, wall color can be used to reduce energy consumption, in addition to improving wellness.

do you prefer white walls?


simply white OC-117

color of the year 2016 | benjamin moore paint

photo credit benjamin moore

are you a garden person?



chelsea flower show gardens 8-xlarge_trans++qVzuuqpFlyLIwiB6NTmJwfSVWeZ_vEN7c6bHu2jJnT8

best show garden | the telegraph garden | designed by andy sturgeon | 2016 chelsea flower show

photo credits jonathan brady/pa | irish times, rhs, and the telegraph

or, a plant person?




diamond jubilee award | great pavilion | ashwood nurseries | 2016 chelsea flower show

photo credits ashwood nurseries, ashwood nurseries, and michael perry | plantgeek

financial times newspaper columnist, robin lane fox, thinks that even though the show gardens receive more press coverage, the real chelsea flower show occurs in the plant pavilions.